Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

COVID-19 for the ONU Community

A resource for finding and evaluating reliable information regarding COVID-19.

The Scientific Method

Because COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus, we are continuing to learn about how it works and what effects it has on the human body. The nature of the scientific method means that as we learn more, guidance will change. 

the scientific method as an ongoing process. Graphic of arrows going in a circle with text:  develop general theories, make observations, think of interesting questions, formulate hypotheses, develop testable predictions, gather data to test predictions. Arrow extends from gather data to text in the center: refine, alter, expand or reject hypotheses, which also points to develop testable predictions.

By Whatiguana - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

The Research Process

Scholarly Publishing

Scholarly publishing is often a slow process, due to the length of time the research itself may take coupled with thorough peer review. Peer review is a central part of the process because it means that experts in the field have evaluated the research and found that it merited publication, acting as a form of quality control.

The Long Road to Publishing a Scientific Paper (Click image or title to see full-sized image.) 
Comic-style infographic created by evolutionary biologist Kathryn Everson, PhD, to explain the academic publishing process. Original images are freely available for download on her Flickr page.


Text-only is available in the document below.

Peer Review Behind the Scenes

Diagram of peer review process

Image source: Peer-review: The Nuts and Bolts from Sense about Science