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CE 3311: Geotechnical Engineering

Applied Energy (AE) Citation Style

Reference formatting 
Where applicable, the following must be present in your cited references:

  • author(s) name(s)
  • journal title/book title
  • chapter title/article title
  • year of publication
  • volume number/book chapter
  • article number or pagination

​Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The page numbers should be formatted to the shortened form for the last page number (e.g., 51–9). References with more than 6 authors should have the first 6 listed, then be followed by 'et al.' In cases where the resource does not naturally contain the above information, the resource should still be cited in a similar format using what information it does provide. For example, when citing a personal interview, the title portion of the citation can contain the overall topic that was discussed.

The following style guide and examples detail how the references should be formatted and arranged:

Reference style 
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given. 
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. 


Reference to a journal publication
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.

Reference to a journal publication with an article number
[2] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205.

Reference to a book
[3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000. 

Reference to a chapter in an edited book
[4] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.

Reference to a website:
[5] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK,; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].

Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] [6] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Reference to personal interview:
[7] Wayne, Bruce. Topic: Cool Gadgets, Wayne Manor, and Politics in Gotham City. Personal Communication, Phone Interview. Interview conducted on 15 November 2019.

Help Writing and Citing Sources