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Anti-Racism Resources

Racist and Anti-Racist

These terms are provided and defined to provide a starting point as you begin to read the resources recommended in this guide.  

Racist: "One who is supporting a racist policy through their actions or inaction or expressing a racist idea." 

 - Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An AntiRacist

Anti-Racist: " One who is supporting an antiracist policy through their actions or expressing an antiracist idea."

- Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An AntiRacist




A three part cognitive conceptualization, unique to each individual, consisting of: 
1) Thymos, a universal aspect of human personality that craves recognition,
2) A distinction between the inner and outer self (conceptualization of self and how society views the self, respectively), and the rising of the moral valuation of the inner self over outer society.
3) An evolving concept of dignity, in which recognition is due not to a narrow class but to everyone.
- Fukuyama (2018). Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment.

Implicit Bias

Implicit Bias: "Also known as implicit social cognition, implicit bias refers to the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner."  

- from the Kirwin Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicit, Ohio State University


Intersectionality: "Intersectionality is a feminist theory and analytical lens coined by critical race scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw (1989) that assesses the overlap of various social identities—such as race, gender, sexuality, and class—and identifies how cumulatively these factors contribute to the specific type of systemic oppression and discrimination experienced by an individual rights-holder." - from Aspen Network of Development Entrepeneurs


Microaggression: "Stunning small encounter with racism, usually unnoticed by members of the majority race."

- from Critical Race Theory by Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic



The systematic subjugation of one social group by a more powerful social group for the social, economic, and political benefit of the more powerful social group.  Rita Hardiman and Bailey Jackson state that oppression exists when the following 4 conditions are found: 

  • the oppressor group has the power to define reality for themselves and others, 
  • the target groups take in and internalize the negative messages about them and end up cooperating with the oppressors (thinking and acting like them),
  • genocide, harassment, and discrimination are systematic and institutionalized, so that individuals are not necessary to keep it going, and, 
  • members of the oppressor and target groups are socialized to play their roles as normal and correct.  
  • Oppression = Power + Prejudice

Source: Dismantling Racism Works web workbook (via Racial Equity Tools Glossary

Racist policy

Racist Policy: "A racist policy is any measure that produces or sustains racial inequity between racial groups....By policy I mean written and unwritten laws, rules, procedures, processes, regulations, and guidelines that govern people."

-Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An AntiRacist, p.18

* Related terms include structural racism, systemic racism and institutional racism.  For more on these terms, read "11 Terms You Should Know to Better Understand Structural Racism​".  


Privilege and White Privilege

Privilege:  Right or advantage, often unwritten, conferred on some people but not others, usually without examination or good reason. -Delgado and Stefancic  

The ability of a group of individuals to define societal norms and avoid objecting to the oppression of non-privileged groups.  - Rothenberg (2012). White Privilege (4th Eds.)


White privilege: "White privilege is an institutional (rather than personal) set of benefits granted to those of us who, by race, resemble the people who dominate the powerful positions in our institutions. One of the primary privileges is that of having greater access to power and resources than people of color do; in other words, purely on the basis of our skin color doors are open to us that are not open to other people." Francis E. Kendall

White Supremacy

White Supremacy: White supremacy is "the belief system that rationalizes and reproduces white advantage in the political, social, and cultural institutions of society. This belief system holds that white people, white culture, and things associated with whiteness are superior to those of other racial groups." (Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice, page 138)