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Employment Discrimination Course Research: Primary Sources

For students enrolled in Professor Bales's Employment Discrimination Course

Primary Sources

Federal Statutes

Most federal statutes regarding employment and labor law can be found in Titles 29 and 42 of the United States Code. Note that the links provided here for each section are to free versions of the law and so are NOT annotated with case citations and other research references. To use an annotated version of the U.S. Code, you will need to access either Lexis (U.S. Code Service),  Westlaw (U.S. Code Annotated) or use the print versions in the library.

Examples of pertinent legislation include:

Free digital copies of the U.S. Code can be found at the following websites:


Most federal regulations regarding employment and labor law can be found in Titles 20 and 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Free digital copies of federal statutes, as printed in the Code of Federal Regulations, are found here:

NOTE: Federal departments and agencies that deal with labor and employment law issues also issue agency-specific rules, guidance, and administrative rulings. See the Secondary Resources tab for more info.

Ohio Statutes

The Ohio Civil Rights Commission enforces Ohio's laws against discrimination. Its authority is derived from Ohio Revised Code Chapter 4112 and Ohio Administrative Code Chapter 4112. The specific subsection that deals with employment discrimination is ORC Chapter 4112.02.



Case Law

Multi-Jurisdictional Research

Fifty-state surveys track a single topic across the statutes (or regulations) of all 50 states.  They usually take the form of a state-by-state table or chart containing the citations to the laws on the given topic in each state, but generally contain little-to-no analysis.  A 50-State Survey will not be available for all topics, but, if there is one, it can serve as a valuable starting point when conducting multi-jurisdictional research on a topic. Check each of the below sources to see if there is a 50-state-survey already compiled for your topic. (Note the date of any 50-state-surveys you find; some updating may be required.)

Note that you can sometimes find multi-state surveys or multi-state issue-trackers online. For example, the National Conference of State Legislatures also often has multi-state surveys for statutes or legislation (bill-tracking, etc.) on select topics.

Search Google Scholar

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