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BIZ 2021: Microeconomic Foundations for Business Planning

Basic article citation

Author's Last Name, Author's Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal/Magazine, Volume(Issue),Page(s)doi:xx.xxxxxxx

Date of Publication

Magazines also list the month, date, or season with the year: (Year, Month)


The DOI, or  Digital Object Identifier, is an alphanumeric string that is assigned to some electronic articles. Not every article will have a DOI number, but if it appears in the citation information for an article you are citing from an electronic source, it should be included. Reference citations without a DOI will look the same as the example citation above, but without "doi:xx.xxxxxxxx".

If no DOI is assigned to an article, but you retrieved the article online, be sure to include the URL for the page where you found the article, using the following format: Retrieved from

Journal article - print or found in a database

MacFarland, M. (2014). The true cost of cheap clothing. Virginia Quarterly Review90(2), 40-43.
Article with DOI and two authors:
Brooks, A., & Simon, D. (2012). Unravelling the relationships between used-clothing imports and the decline of African clothing industries. Development & Change43(6), 1265-1290. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01797.x

Magazine article - print or found in a database

Dreier, P. (2011, November 7). Another factory is possible. Nation293(19), 17-20.

Magazine article - only available online

When citing an article that can only be found online, follow the guidelines for print articles. You should include as much of the publication information as possible and the URL where the article can be found.

Winser, K. (2015, September 8). Size: Why it's a controversial and complicated issue in the fashion industry. Forbes. Retrieved from