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BIZ 2021: Microeconomic Foundations for Business Planning

Manual and help pages

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the ultimate resource for questions on APA format.

These sites can also help you answer quick citation questions:

Reference List: General Rules

  • All references should be included in the reference list
  • Put references in alphabetical order by the last name of the author
  • Authors' first names are not listed, only initials
  • Titles of books, magazines, journals, and newspapers should be in italics
  • Capitalize the first letter of the first word in titles and subtitles for books, chapters, articles, and webpages
  • Journal titles should maintain the capitalization used by the journal
  • Use a hanging indent of .5 inch to indent all lines after the first line of a citation on the reference list

In-Text Citations: General Rules

  • Whenever you paraphrase or directly quote from a source, you must acknowledge the author with a citation
  • APA format requires the year after the author's name for in-text citations
  • Page number (or paragraph number for sources without page numbers) is required for direct quotes

Direct quote, work with author and page numbers:   (Author, 2008, p. 74) 

Paraphrase, work with author:   (Author, 2008)

Direct quote, work with no author and no page numbers:  (“Short title,” 2015, para. 2)

Paraphrase, work with no author:  (“Short title,” 2015)



This guide is adapted from a guide by Rob Snyder at Bowling Green State University Libraries.