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Citation Help

Manual and Additional Resources

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the ultimate resource for questions on APA format.

Basic Citation Format

APA citations generally consist of four elements:

  • Who (author)
  • When (date of publication)
  • What (title)
  • Where (source, or where can the source being cited found)

If a work has 1-20 authors, list all authors in the reference list. If the work has 21 or more authors, list the first 19 authors, followed by an ellipsis (...), and then include the final author's name in your reference list for a total of 20 names.

If a work has 3 or more authors, list the first author's last name et al. for parenthetical citations. For example: (Crozier et al., 2020).

You can use these elements to put together a citation even if you can't find an example in the manual.